NCLEX Pharm Focus
Does Pharmacology cause you much anxiety? According to the National Council State Board of Nursing (NCSBN), Pharmacological and Parental Therapy represent 12-18% of the RN NCLEX exam while 11-17% represent a portion of the PN NCLEX exam. With this in mind, familiarizing yourself with the commonly asked medications is an important part of your NCLEX preparation.

Losartan potassium


Brand Name(s):

  • Cozaar

Pharmacologic Class:

  • Angiotensin II receptor antagonist
Indications:
  • Hypertension
  • Nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients
  • Stroke prevention in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy

Action:

  • Inhibits vasoconstrictive and aldosterone-secreting action of angiotensin II by blocking angiotensin II receptor on the surface of vascular smooth muscle and other tissue cells.
Adverse Reactions:

Patients with hypertension or left ventricular hypertrophy:
  • CNS: dizziness, asthenia, fatigue, headache, insomnia
  • CV: edema, chest pain
  • Respiratory: cough, upper respiratory infection
  • Other: angioedema
Patients with nephropathy:
  • CNS: asthenia, fatigue
  • CV: chest pain, hypotension, orthostatic hypotension
  • GI: diarrhea, dyspepsia, gastritis
  • GU: UTI
  • Metabolic: hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia, weight gain
  • Musculoskeletal: back pain
  • Respiratory: cough, bronchitis
  • Other: flulike syndrome, angioedema
Nursing Considerations:
  • Monitor patient’s blood pressure closely to evaluate effectiveness of therapy.
  • Monitor patients who are also taking diuretics for hypotension.
  • Monitor creatinine and BUN levels.
  • Don’t confuse Cozaar with Zocor.

Patient Teaching:

  • Instruct patient to avoid salt substitutes containing potassium. May cause hyperkalemia.
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Email: info@ddnclexreview.com
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South San Francisco, CA 94080
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D&D Nursing Educators, Inc., 90 So. Spruce Ave. Suite P South San Francisco, CA 94080


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